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The Pakistan Journal of Nuclear Medicine, PJNM, is a national and international peer-reviewed journal reflecting the multidisciplinary nature of the specialty. The journal publishes material of interest to clinicians and scientists in the field of nuclear medicine and proffers the following types of manuscripts for publication including: Editorials, Full papers or original articles, Review articles, Short communications, Case reports, Brief Reports,  Case of the Month, Commentaries, Pictorial Reviews, Letters to the Editor and Book reviews. The first issue of the journal is  scheduled for publication in January 2011.


Editors and reviewers spend many hours reading manuscripts, and therefore appreciate receiving manuscripts that are easy-to-read and edit. Much of the information in Instructions to Authors is designed to facilitate the editing process. The following information provides guidance in preparing manuscripts for any journal.
The manuscripts submitted for publication should be provided in MS Word format with font size of 12, using Sans Serif fonts like Arial or Helvetica. The lines should be double-spaced throughout the manuscript, with margins of at least 3 cm on all sides and all the pages should be numbered starting from title page.

Use the following order for the sections of the manuscript: title page, abstract, text, acknowledgments, references, tables (each on a separate page), and figure legends. Number pages consecutively, beginning with the Title page. Do not use automated word-processing features or embedding for numbering, footnotes, or endnotes.




Guidelines for composing general articles (full papers and review articles and short communications) are provided below. Templates for other forms of submission including case reports, case of the month, pictorial reviews and interesting images, Editorials, letters to the Editor, etc. are being produced and would soon be available for reference.

Reporting guidelines have been developed for a number of study designs. The general requirements listed in the next section relate to reporting essential elements for all study designs. A good source of reporting guidelines is the EQUATOR Network ( preparing manuscripts, authors should follow the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (as cited in Ann Intern Med. 1997;126:36-47 and JAMA. 1997;277:927-934).

In general, the text of original scientific and methodology articles is usually arranged in the following order: 1) Title page, 2) Introduction, 3) Materials and Methods, 4) Results, 5) Discussion or Results and Discussion, 6) Conclusions, 7) Acknowledgements, 8) References, 9) Tables and figures along with caption and legends, 10) Tables and Figures captions and legends.


Contains the manuscript title, name of authors, authors’ addresses, Abstract, Keywords, the name and contact details of the first or the corresponding author.

Manuscript Title: This should be bold faced (title case, font size 14) and should be concise and informative with a maximum of 200 characters.

Name of the authors:  In normal face (font size 12). Names of the authors should appear as first name, middle name initial and full surnames. The author to whom correspondence should be directed must be indicated with an asterisk.

Addresses of authors: In normal face, lower case (font size 12). Each author should provide complete affiliation details with name of department and institution to which the work should be attributed. The maximum limit on the number of authors is six. If the publication originates from several institutes, the affiliation of each author should be clearly stated by using superscript Arabic numbers after the name and before the institute.

Correspondence: At the bottom left corner of this page, please mention “Correspondence” giving the name, full address, telephone number, fax number and e-mail address of the corresponding author.


Abstract not exceeding 250-300 words should be typed on a separate sheet. A structured abstract provides the context and the essence of the study and should include aims, methods, results and conclusions. Each section should be preceded by these headings. Articles on clinical trials should contain abstracts that include the items that the CONSORT group (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) has identified as essential. See =1190.

Keywords: Up to 3-5 keywords must be provided in alphabetical order, preferably taken from Index Medicus. These keywords should be typed at the end of the abstract.


This section starts on a separate page after keywords. It should be a concise statement of the background and the objectives of the work presented with pertinent references to earlier work.


This section should follow the introduction on a new page. All important materials and equipments including the manufacturer’s name and, if possible, the location should be provided. The main methods used shall be briefly described, citing references. New methods or substantially modified methods may be described in sufficient detail including selection and exclusion criteria of the study population (e.g. age, sex, ethnicity, etc.) when and if such details are relevant to the study. Authors submitting review articles should specify the methods used for locating, selecting, extracting, and interpreting data. These methods should also be summarized in the abstract.

Statistics:  The statistical method and the level of significance chosen should be detailed.  Statistical methods should be described clearly to allow both readers and reviewers to verify the reported results based on the original data that must be provided. Define statistical terms, abbreviations and symbols where necessary and also the name of the statistical analysis software used.


The important results of the work should be clearly stated and illustrated where necessary by tables and figures. The statistical treatment of data and significance level of the factors should be stated wherever necessary. Data that is not statistically significant need only to be mentioned in the text and unless they have a direct bearing on the study design and hypothesis, should not be represented by charts and figures. Results should be presented in logical sequence in the text, tables, and illustrations, giving the main or most important findings first and please avoid repetition of data presented in the tables and figures in the text. Also do not duplicate data in graphs and tables and use precise technical terminology.


This section should deal with the interpretation of results, making the readers understand the problem been investigated in a logical fashion. Results and discussion of the work can also be combined under one section (Results and Discussion). The discussion should state the scope of the results., emphasise any new or important aspects of the study, and the conclusions derived in the context of the totality of the best available evidence. Avoid unnecessary repetition of the information given in the Introduction or the Results sections.


Concisely summarize the principal conclusions of the work and highlight the wider implications. Link the conclusions with the goals of the study but avoid statements and conclusions not adequately supported by the data. This section should not merely duplicate the abstract. State the limitations of the study, and explore the implications of the findings for future research and for clinical practice.


Acknowledgements should be brief but should include reference to sources of financial support. Persons, who have contributed intellectually to the work but do not fulfil condition number 6 in the copyright section (below), may be listed in the acknowledgments.


Only published journal articles and books should be cited. Do avoid referring to abstracts, unpublished papers and personal communications if possible. Literature citations should be numbered consecutively in numerical order starting from the first mention in the text using Arabic numerals in square brackets (e.g. [1], [1, 2], [1, 3, 6], [2-5]). References appearing in a table or figure should be numbered sequentially with those in the text. However, electronic references should be inserted in parenthesis in the text directly after the information to which they refer.  Note: Please do not use supercripts for references in text. 
The Uniform Requirements style for references is based largely on an American National Standards Institute style adapted by the NLM for its databases. Authors should consult NLM’s Citing Medicine for information on its recommended formats for a variety of reference types. Authors may also consult sample references, a list of examples extracted from or based on Citing Medicine for easy use by the ICMJE audience; these sample references are maintained by NLM. The titles of journals should be abbreviated according to the style used in the list of Journals Indexed for MEDLINE, posted by the NLM on the Library's Web site. Also, please check the references as they should appear in text and in the reference section of the pre-publication manuscript available on the Writers' Resources page. Basic guidelines are provided below:

Isotopes: When abbreviating isotopes, designate them in the following manner using superscripts: 125I, 113mIn, 99mTc.

Radiopharmaceuticals: Radiopharmaceuticals should be listed with the isotope first followed by the chemical form. Abbreviations of isotopes are preferred but not required:  99mTcO4 (99mTc  pertechnetate),131I-HSA (131I human serum albumin), 99mTc-MDP (99mTc methylene diphosphonate), etc.

Abbreviating radiopharmaceuticals: In using abbreviations to shorten the lengthy name of a radiopharmaceutical, the full name should be spelled out completely the first time it is mentioned, followed by the abbreviation in parentheses (99mTc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA); thereafter 99mTc-DTPA). In the abstract, abbreviations may be used throughout without explanation.

Radiopharmaceutical doses: The radioactive doses should be submitted as Becquerels units and abbreviated (Bq).



Authors are invited to submit their manuscripts electronically through Journal's email address (Editor-in-Chief PJNM) along with a covering letter by the corresponding author or the first author. Each manuscript will be provided with a manuscript ID and all correspondence is done through e-mail. Please always refer to the manuscript ID for any further enquiries.

Covering Letter

All manuscripts should be accompanied by a cover letter from the author responsible for correspondence regarding the manuscript. The letter should contain a statement that the manuscript has been seen and approved by all authors and should give any additional information that may be helpful to the Editor.


Submission of a manuscript implies that: 1) the work described has not been previously published, nor is it under consideration for publication elsewhere; 2) all co-authors have approved submission for publication in the PJNM; 3) approval for publication has been obtained from the institution where the work has been carried out; 4) the clinical or research work covered in the article, was performed in compliance with the regulations and ethical guidelines of the affiliated institution(s); 5) any financial support for the study or any conflict of interest has been disclosed in the acknowledgement section; 6) each of the authors of the article has contributed significantly to the design, analysis and/or interpretation, writing or critiquing drafts of the manuscript and has approved the final manuscript before publication; and 7) upon acceptance of the manuscript for publication, copyright ownership for the publication will be transferred to the PJNM. However, the authors can use material from their paper in other works published by them. The publisher will not be held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation or copyright infringement.



All submitted manuscripts will undergo peer-review. Reviewers receive manuscripts with blind title pages to ensure an unbiased review. Reviewers are asked to provide detailed constructive criticism for transmission to the authors. PJNM will request the reviewers to submit their comments within 2 weeks of agreeing to review a paper. All efforts are taken to provide fair and thorough reviews as speedily as possible. Having appraised the reviewers’ reports, the Editors will make a final decision on each manuscript.

Categories of decision: These include: 1) acceptance, 2) acceptance following minor revision, 3) acceptance after revision, and 4) rejection.

When revisions are requested, all points raised by the reviewers must be answered by the authors on a separate sheet, returned with their revised manuscript. However, if the authors disagree with specific reviewer's recommendations, authors are free to explain their reasoning when resubmitting their paper.

Authors should also be aware that manuscripts may be returned without external review when the Associate or the Ex Officio Editors consider that the scientific quality of the submission does not meet the acceptance criteria for publication in the PJNM and will undermine the reputation or the professional standard of the journal. Editorial rejection also serves to speed up the editorial process and to allow the authors’ papers to be promptly submitted and reviewed elsewhere.



International Committee of Medical Journal Editors [homepage on the Internet]. Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publications. Available from:

Patrias, Karen. Citing medicine: the NLM style guide for authors, editors, and publishers [Internet]. 2nd ed. Wendling, Daniel L., technical editor. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007. Available from:

Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals. International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. N Engl J Med 1997; 336:309-316.

Citing Medicine, 2nd edition.The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers. Karen Patrias, Dan Wendling, Technical Editor. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007.

International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Sample References. From: